“Silent killer” – such a nickname has received this disease. And not in vain: often it passes without pronounced symptoms, until it is too late. We learn what arterial hypertension is, how to identify the disease in time and whether it can be cured.
About the disease
The diagnosis is made for patients who have repeatedly recorded excess blood pressure acceptable values. Normally, it is 120 by 80 mmHg. For correct diagnosis, it is necessary to note the excess of readings by 10 or more mm RT. Art. at least three times in a calm environment and in different circumstances.
There are several degrees of severity:
|Heaviness||Systolic pressure (in mmHg)||Diastolic pressure (in mmHg)|
|Increased within the norm||130-139||85-89|
|1st degree (easy)||140-159||90-99|
|2nd degree (medium)||160-179||100-109|
|3rd degree (heavy)||180- …||110- …|
In 90-95% of cases, the causes of primary hypertension cannot be identified. Experts pay attention to hereditary predisposition, especially on the maternal side. Secondary (symptomatic) develops as a result of:
- Lesions of the kidneys and adrenal glands;
- Malfunctioning thyroid gland;
- The use of certain drugs (antidepressants, hormones, etc.).
A number of circumstances increase the risk of ailment. Among them:
- Excessive salt intake;
- Bad habits (smoking, alcohol, prohibited substances);
- Inactive lifestyle;
- Overweight, obesity;
- Age 55 years for men and 65 for women;
- High cholesterol;
- Frequent nervous strain.
It is also noted that in men, the disease develops more often. A separate unfavorable factor is the presence of cases of hypertension in the family history, especially in two or more family members.
Symptoms and diagnosis
In the early stages, arterial hypertension often proceeds unnoticed, making it difficult to identify the disease. Possible symptoms include:
- Headaches in the occipital region;
- Sleep Disorders;
- Throbbing in temples;
- Ringing and tinnitus;
- Frequent fatigue, lethargy, weakness;
- Swelling of the face and limbs;
- Irritability, mood swings;
- Shortness of breath with light exertion (walking, climbing stairs).
Since these signs are often absent, the only reliable way to detect the disease is to record data using a tonometer. Measurements are taken in a calm environment, in a sitting position, not after physical exertion. The patient should not talk or move. If the values are exceeded, the patient can measure the pressure on their own at home.
If the doctor suspects hypertension, he appoints examinations:
- General analysis of urine and blood;
- Measurement of sugar and cholesterol;
- Urinalysis for protein;
- Ultrasound of the kidneys, adrenal glands and blood vessels, etc.
According to studies, hypertension can be diagnosed.
With arterial hypertension, a sudden deterioration in case of malfunctions of the blood circulation is possible. The situation is dangerous to health and life, causing complications in the heart, lungs, blood vessels and brain.
- Headache, dizziness;
- Nausea, occasionally vomiting;
- shortness of breath, shortness of breath;
- Trembling in the limbs;
- “Flies” in the eyes;
- Sweating, redness of the skin;
- Numbness in the oral cavity;
- Drawing pain behind the sternum, angina pectoris;
- Panic, fear, anxiety of the patient.
Hypertensive crisis is accompanied by motor and speech disorders. The first thing to do is call an ambulance crew. Before the arrival of physicians, the patient should be at rest and relieve stress factors. Perhaps doctors insist on hospitalization: it is not worth arguing.
Hypertension affects many organs, especially cardiac, renal, and brain activity. Among the complications:
- Myocardial infarction;
- Angina pectoris;
- Erectile Dysfunction.
The treatment of arterial hypertension is dictated by the severity. The goal is to lower systematic indicators and reduce the risk of adverse effects. The activities are as follows:
- At the 1st degree, enough controlarterial hypertension