After asthma, chronic bronchitis is the most common airway lesion. It, along with emphysema, is included in the concept of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Statistics say that COPD is the fourth cause of death in the world. And the symptoms of chronic bronchitis were found in 15 % of Russians.
- What is it.
- Diagnostics .
- Prevention .
What is it
Bronchitis is a common respiratory disease. Symptoms-strong cough, sometimes shortness of breath; viscous sputum, headache, General weakness. If the situation repeats every few months / weeks, we can talk about chronic bronchitis-a difficult-to-treat disease.
It is accompanied by coughing and sputum separation, lasting at least three months annually, according to the results of two-year observations. Other causes of sputum formation (tuberculosis, bronchiectasia) are excluded. Chronic bronchitis provokes inflammation and irritation of the Airways – bronchi. When they are inflamed, mucus accumulates. Over time, it clogs the bronchi, preventing the passage of air flow and making it difficult to breathe.
Chronic bronchitis overtakes at any time of the year, but more often – in the cold months, when acute upper respiratory tract infections. Main reason:
- Inhalation of hazardous substances in the workplace (usually hazardous work), air pollution, secondhand smoke;
- Inhalation of vapors, dust microparticles. Aggravate the condition of chemical solvents;
- Viruses (influenza a and B, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus);
- Bacteria (Mycoplasma, chlamydia pneumoniae, pneumococcus, moraxella catarrhalis, etc.);
- Deformities and injuries of the chest.
Additional factors that increase the likelihood of getting sick:
- Middle and old age;
- Male (due to the more common Smoking among men and work in hazardous industries);
- Weakened immune system;
- Prolonged exposure to respiratory irritants.
The most common classification of chronic bronchitis is proposed by Paleev and Tsarkova.
- By the nature:
- By the nature of the discharge:
- Hemorrhagic (there is blood in the sputum);
- Fibrinous (separated mucus thick, visible clots of fibrin).
- By the presence of obstruction:
- By the nature of the lesion:
- Proximal (large branches of the bronchial tree are affected);
- Distal (affecting the small bronchial tubes).
- By the nature of the flow:
- Relapsing constantly;
- With rare exacerbations;
- With frequent exacerbations.
A strong painful cough that does not disappear for weeks, months, is the main sign that allows you to suspect chronic bronchitis. Symptoms also include:
- Copious sputum yellowish color, sometimes with an admixture of pus;
- Soreness in the chest, tension of the abdominal muscles;
- Wheezing breath;
- Shortness of breath after exercise and in a calm state;
- Constant feeling of weakness, weakness;
- Decrease in memory, attention, ability to work;
- Severe night sweats;
- The rise in temperature to subfebrile;
- The frequent need to ” clear your throat».
Symptoms are expressed during exacerbations and weaken or disappear at the stages of remission.
The diagnosis of chronic bronchitis is suspected in the presence of respiratory infections and these symptoms. However, previously, the doctor should exclude other respiratory diseases with a similar clinical picture. To confirm the diagnosis the patient is prescribed the following procedures:
- Complete laboratory blood test;
- Prolactin level analysis to help distinguish bacterial from bacterial infection;
- Examination of urine for the presence of protein, excess white blood cells;
- Analysis for the presence of influenza;
- Study of the gas state of blood;
- Cytological examination of sputum;
- Bronchoscopy and bronchography;
- Radioscopy and radiography.
Choosing which doctor to contact if you suspect bronchitis, you should start with a therapist. He will conduct auscultation (listening) of the lungs and ask questions, how often the patient smokes and what is the experience; in what production the patient works, whether he comes into contact with dangerous substances. Then the doctor will prescribe additional examinations.
How to treat chronic bronchitis? The disease is almost impossible to cure completely, so the therapy is aimed at relieving symptoms, getting rid of provoking factors and overall strengthening of the body. The combination of medicines allows you to open clogged Airways and facilitate the removal of sputum. At the stages of exacerbation, the patient is recommended bed rest; the room should be thoroughly ventilated. If possible it is necessary to get air purifiers.
Includes the following activities:
- To suppress the cough, short-term drugs are prescribed, for example, containing codeine;
- Shortness of breath and bronchospasms are facilitated by drugs with beta-agonists: aminophylline, ipratropium bromide;
- Pain syndrome is mitigated by nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs;
- Also, with exacerbations, expectorants are prescribed.
In some cases, antibiotics are recommended. However, this is permissible only if there is no risk of complications and side effects. Patients with congestive heart failure, diabetes or taking steroids are also indicated for antibiotics.
The risk of upper respiratory tract infections is lower if you vaccinate against influenza: this reduces the likelihood of acute bacterial bronchitis.
The best thing smokers will do to prevent chronic bronchitis is to give up the bad habit. The more often you inhale tobacco smoke, the higher the risk of damage to the lungs and bronchi. When quitting Smoking, breathing becomes easier, shortness of breath disappears, the lungs slowly heal.
Another recommendation is to avoid products that irritate the respiratory tract: aerosols, spray deodorants, hair dyes. It is necessary to refrain from frequent inhalation of dust, chemical vapors. Wearing a mask or respirator will protect the lungs when using paint or solvents.
Nutrition and lifestyle
Sports, walks in the fresh air, physical activity-all this will strengthen the body and prevent bronchial diseases. It is worth paying attention to the diet, including it:
- Lean meat;
- Vegetable soups and broths;
- Stewed vegetables;
- Dairy products.
It is advisable to refrain from:
- Fat, fried;
- Aerated water;
- Overly spicy, spicy food;
You should regularly undergo medical examination and take tests: it is always easier to prevent than to cure. If you have suspicious symptoms you can not postpone a visit to the doctor.