Human kidneys are the most important paired organs that are part of the urinary system. They affect the work of the whole body and take part in the course of many internal processes. Any violation of their work can cause harm to health and slow down the functioning of most organs.
Acute and chronic pyelonephritis is based on the course of the inflammatory-infectious process that covers the Cup-pelvic system of the kidneys. The disease can not be started, as the infection can spread to healthy organs, provoke the development of kidney failure, sepsis and other life-threatening complications.
- Etiological factors
- Symptoms of pyelonephritis
- Features of treatment
The main cause of pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). But the following predisposing factors can provoke the appearance of an inflammatory process:
- weakening of the immune system;
- anatomical features of the structure of the kidneys;
- the beginning of sexual life;
Pyelonephritis can be asymptomatic, which misleads many patients and makes them hesitate to contact specialists. Nephrologists are often treated by patients already in the advanced stage of the disease, and the disease in the chronic form is diagnosed in them completely by accident-when receiving the results of a urine test.
Qualitative diagnostics allows timely detection of the inflammatory process and take active therapeutic actions to prevent the development of complications of pyelonephritis: kidney abscess, sepsis, pustular lesions, necrosis of the renal papillae, destructive tissue changes, renal failure.
Symptoms of pyelonephritis
Pyelonephritis can be acute and chronic. The lack of effective treatment in combination with repeated relapses leads to a chronic course of the disease.
Pyelonephritis in the acute stage is easily diagnosed by bright symptoms. Patients have the following pathological signs:
- pronounced weakness;
- fever syndrome;
- urine gets a fetid smell, can become cloudy and red;
- raised sweating;
- signs of intoxication: body aches, headaches, nausea, chills;
- intense pain in the lower back;
- positive symptom of Pasternatsky (pain when tapping the lower back).
The appearance of symptoms of pyelonephritis requires urgent treatment by a specialist. Only a doctor can make an accurate diagnosis and assess the severity of the patient’s condition. People with chronic pyelonephritis note attacks of fatigue, lethargy, dull aching back pain that occur during menstruation, after hypothermia and viral infection, frequent urge to urinate.
The examination is carried out by a nephrologist. Before starting treatment for pyelonephritis in men, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive urological diagnosis. The disease is often associated with a chronic course of urethritis, prostatitis, prostate adenoma, which provokes violations of urine outflow and reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms in the tissues.
Diagnosis of pyelonephritis includes the following studies:
- General analysis of blood (expressed leukocytosis, increased ESR) and urine (detection of the pathogen in the urine, protein), biochemical blood test, urine bacposev, urine analysis by zimnitsky;
- overview urography;
- excretory urography;
- Ultrasound of the kidneys;
- computer tomography.
Pyelonephritis — insidious disease, which is recommended to treat it in the initial stage of development. Inflammatory processes of the kidneys negatively affect the work of many other organs and systems of the patient.
Features of treatment
The main method of treatment of pyelonephritis is the appointment of antibacterial therapy, taking into account the identified microorganisms. Antibiotics are combined with nitrofurans. Additionally, it is necessary to use multivitamin complexes, antihistamines.
Treatment of pyelonephritis in women may require additional consultation with a gynecologist. Infection in the kidneys is often a complication of other diseases of the pelvic organs. In this case, it is necessary to prescribe additional therapeutic measures aimed at eliminating all identified foci of infection in the bladder, uterus and appendages.
After the elimination of signs of exacerbation of the disease, you can use physical therapy: electrophoresis, galvanization, ultrasound. The patient is prescribed a therapeutic diet, which involves limiting protein, refusing coffee, alcoholic beverages, spicy dishes, strong meat and fish products. Food should be balanced, include vegetables, fruits, boiled lean meat, dairy products. Daily volume of liquid — not less than 2 liters. Water provides washing of the urinary tract, accelerates recovery.
Treatment of exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis
In case of exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis, the patient is treated in a hospital. Experts determine the reasons that provoked the difficulty of outflow of urine and caused circulatory disorders of the kidneys. It is possible to use surgical techniques: removal of stones, nephropexy (fixing the kidney to neighboring organs), resection of adenoma in men. The patient is in need of detoxification treatment. Throughout the acute period, a low-protein diet is prescribed.
The success of the treatment of pyelonephritis largely depends on the degree of responsibility of the patient and his desire to defeat the disease. Nephrologists recommend seeking medical help when the first symptoms of the disease appear, and patients with chronic pyelonephritis should regularly undergo preventive examinations and strictly follow medical recommendations for treatment, prevention and lifestyle changes.